The KIO’s armed wing the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) is the second largest ethnic armed group in Myanmar. The KIO claims to have 10,000 troops with another 10,000 reservists in the civilian population ready to fight.

The KNU has been fighting for determination and autonomy in one of the world’s longest civil wars. Following Myanmar's independence from the British in 1948, the Karen National Defence Organization (KNDO) was formed to fight against the central government. This name was later changed to the KNU.

The SSA-S was formed from the Shan United Revolutionary Army (SURA) by Lt-Gen.Yawd Serk that opposed the ceasefire with the government made by the mainstream SSA, now known as SSA-N. The SURA was a breakaway faction of the Mong Tai Army led by drug lord Khun Sa and previously the original Shan State Army.

The conflict between the KNPP’s armed wing the Karenni army and Myanmar military has resulted in thousands of civilians being displaced from their homes. Many of whom have sought shelter in Thai refugee camps.

Mon separatists formed the Mon Peoples Front (MPF). The group was later reformed and renamed as the New Mon State Party (NMSP). Since 1949, the eastern hills of the state (as well as portions of Thaninthaya Division) have been under NMSP control.

The UWSP administers 6 designated townships of the Wa Self-Administered Division as stipulated in the 2008 Constitution. Its official name was announced by decree on Aug. 20, 2010.